The LENO Help and About page

The LENO system is made to support the authoring of lecture notes, organized in a number of chapters (or lectures). The top-level page refers to each lecuture in the material. Each lecture, in turn, refers to a number of pages.

As an important characteristics of LENO, each page can be shown in three different views:

  • A slide view
  • An annotated slide view
  • An aggregated lecture view

In slide view the primary information on a page is shown using a large font, hereby making it attractive to present the information from browser via a projector in an auditorium.

In the annotated slide view the primary information is shown with a number of annotations, which are associated with the individual constituents of a slides. As in slide view, a single page is shown in isolation from all other pages, but links to the previous and the next page exists.

An aggregated lecture view shows the primary slide information and the annotations of all pages in a lecture. Thus, in this view, the pages of a lecture are all aggregated into a single 'lecture page'. The information contents of this view is the same as the sum of the information of the all annotated slides in a single lecture.

In addition, LENO supports generation of an automatically progressing slide show with the teacher's speaker sound. For this to work, the author needs to record the speaker sound and prepare the sequencing and timing of the individual pages in the show. An automatically progressing slide show with speaker sound is started from the lecture overview page, with one of the small speaker icons or from one of the textually anchored links just above the note page table. The slide show brings you through selected slide pages, programs, and image series. Notice that some of the slide pages my be visited more than once (such as before and after an external program page or image series - with different speaker sounds). The speaker sound is streamed to your browser, and currently it relies on RealPlayer from For setup see for instance Aalborg University's video pages.

The navigation icons used in LENO should be relatively straightforward to understand. Nevertheless, here we present an overview of the icons together with a brief explanation:

IconKeyboard shortcutExplanation
uGo up one strutural level towards the top-level page
pGo to the previous page. The icon is also used to navigate from one lectures to the previous lecture.
n, CRGo to the next page. The icon is also used to navigate from one lectures to the next lecture and other similar purposes.This navigation can also be activated by a double click on the background (Internet Explorer only).
no shortcutGo to a download page, which allows access to a zip file with all the files making up the set set of lectures.
no shortcutGo to a page with an alphabetic index of the lecture notes covering all lectures.
no shortcutGo to this page
no shortcutGo to the page designated as the home page of these lecture notes.
no shortcutGo to particular page in the aggregated lecture view
tGo to the annotated slide view from the slide view.
tGo to the slide view from the annotated slide view.
no shortcutGo to the readers comments on this page. Also allows you to post your own comments. This is a link to an annotation server which is external to LENO.
no shortcutAs above - but there is at least one existing comment to this page.
no shortcutIf the current page is within a frame set, then break out from it. If not, nothing happens.
A number in the interval 1..9Go to a source program
A number in the interval 1..9Go to an exercise
A number in the interval 1..9Go to an image series
no shortcutSymbolizes an automatic slide show, possibly with speaker sound. By clicking the symbol the automatic slide show stops.
no shortcutSymbolizes a stopped slide show. By clicking this symbol the automatic slide with possible speaker sound show starts.
no shortcutGo to the next page in an automatically progressing slide show (with speaker sound). Accross a number of pages, these arrow symbols trace the 'dynamic chain' of a slide show as opposed to the yellow arrow symbols that navigate the static page structures.
no shortcutPlays the speaker sound of a single slide page.
no shortcutA symbol shown in a lecture index which links to a particular place in an automatic slide show.
UGo to the table of contents of a trail
PGo to the previous slides in a trail
no shortcutGo to the current slide in a trail
N, SpaceGo to the next slide in a trail

The last four, red icons are used in the LENO trail facility. Using a LENO trail it is possible to define a sequence of slides from selected slides in a number of sections. The trail determines the selection and the sequence of slides. This is useful if you want to present a subset of your slides for some purpose, and if you don't want to deal with multiple copies (which is usually a bad solution). The LENO trail facilities is realized via use of HTML frames. The red icons from above are all shown in a frame of its own (in the leftmost margin), the trail navigation frame. Notice that you can navigate freely in the slide trail while maintaining the context of the trail.

The keyboard shortcuts only work in Internet Explorer 4.0 and higher (from Microsoft). The keyboard shortcuts of programs, exercises, and image series are integers in the range 1..9, corresponding to the sequence of these on a slide or annotated slide.

The collection of html WWW pages, which constitute a set of lecture notes, are generated from a source file written in the programming language Scheme. Scheme is a language in the Lisp family of languages. We use Scheme as a markup language. In a Scheme-based language it is easy to define your own markup elements by means of abstraction. The underlying system, called LAML (Lisp Abstracted Markup Language) is described in further detail in The LAML home page .

Kurt NÝrmark
Aalborg University