A Suite of WWW-based Tools for Advanced Course Management

Kurt NÝrmark

Department of Computer Science
Aalborg University

A collection of tools for creation of advanced and comprehensive course home pages is presented. The tools cover the spectrum from course overview pages, over hypertext teaching materials, to interactive services that support the teaching activities during the course. From the teacher's perspective the tools allow for abstraction from details and automation of routine work in the authoring process. Furthermore, the interactive services provide for evaluation of the actual teaching activities via student feedback and collected statistics. Seen from a student's perspective the comprehensive linking of of course plans, teaching material, and interactive service together with links to external WWW material provides for a valuable organization of a large body of information.

Notice that this version is an early edition of the paper. Here it primarily serves as a realistic demo of the article style. For the most up-to-date version please consult the LAML home page .

1. Introduction4. Synchronous Exercise Management7. Conclusions
2. The Course Plan System5. Asynchronous Activity Management
3. The Lecture Note System6. Integration Issues

1.   Introduction
A course home page may in one extreme cover a single page with a course overview. In the other extreme, a course home page is a network of pages with a complete set of courses resources, such as plans (including a calendar and overviews in various details) course reading materials (book or course notes, possibly in several editions), exercises, solutions to exercises, and interactive services, such as synchronous and asynchronous tools which mediate a dialogue between the students and the teacher. The plans, reading materials, and the interactive course services are often integrated via mutual links.

In this paper we will describe an integerated suite of WWW-based tools which, taken together, provides an extensive and advanced support of a university course in computer science. All the tools are built on the same technical platform, using a technology called LAML [1,2,3] which we have developed as part of our efforts. In this paper we will concentrate on the course impact of the tools, hereby emphasizing organizational and pedagogical issues. The technical issues involved are addressed elsewhere in first two references mentioned above.

In the following sections we will discuss, and give an overview of the tools we have made during the last two years, in order to support a computer science programming course (object-oriented programming in Java). In section 2 we describe the overall course plan system, which generates the 'home page' as such together with overviews of each lecture. In section 3 we go on with an overview of the lecture note system, via which it is possible to create a multi-view, hypertext-based teaching material. In section 4 and 5 we discuss the interactive services used on the course. Prior to the conclusion we briefly discuss a number of integration issues.

2.   The Course Plan System
As a fundamental premise, we have decided to base the entire suite of tool on documents in pure HTML [4]. This is a contrast to using specialized formats (calling for browser plugins) Java applets, or dynamic HTML such Java Script. By this decision our materials can seen from any machine with a modern Internet browser, without having to download or install any additional software. This provides for ideal availability of the materials across all platforms, on university machines as well as on the student's home equipment.

A typical course home page covers a network of WWW pages which presents an overview of the course together with detailed descriptions and presentations of individual lectures. A number of details may occur redundantly on several pages. A course home page embodies knowledge about the following aspects:

Course constituents: Concepts such a plenum sessions, exercises, project work, and lab sessions, together with the mutual structuring among theses.

Course content: The topics covered during the lectures of the course.

Course materials: Description of and references to required or recommended reading material.

Training plans: Proposed exercises together with resources which help the students to deal with problems during the exercises.

Overall sequencing: The mutual ordering of the lectures in the course.

Spatial and temporal details: Where and when the course activities happen in terms of time slots and allocated rooms.

It is not efficient to deal with this body of information in a collection of WWW pages, where also details about layout, typography, and decoration are addressed. We have made a course plan system which as input takes a complete and clean course model, and outputs a set of pages representing the 'course home page'. The course model separates relatively stable aspects of a course (such as topics covered) from the more fluctuating aspects (such as room and time information). In that way it becomes much easier to revise the course home page from one year to the next. Similarly, it is very flexible to change the course schedule, for instance due to a necessary postponement of a number of lectures. The top-level page presents an overview menu frame to the left, and some selected page to the right. Figure 1 shows a snapshot a home page generated by the course plan system. (For better readability in this verion of the paper, the example is also available via an URL.)

Figure 1.   A snapshot of a demo course plan WWW page.

As one of the novel aspects of the course plan system, all information about time stems from a single list of 'lecture start times' together with additional information about the course model (involving details about the mutual timing of exercises and the plenum lecture). The system uses a central lecture description table which relates particular lectures to topics, times, and rooms. In addition, the table defines the sequencing among the lectures. Several different overviews can be generated, including simple listings of the course contents and calendar presentations, which plot the lectures into a semester overview calendar (with a possibility of merging calendar entries for other courses, attended by the students). The generated pages share a common layout, including a number of useful standard links to course relevant resources. The lecture pages, which deal with details such as literature and exercises, can be processed individually. Alternatively, the complete set of pages can be regenerated by executing a single command. In the current system, the course model is represented in a textual 'programmatic' format. We are considering a more user friendly (but probably less powerful) supplementary interface based on WWW forms [4].

3.   The Lecture Note System
Many teachers use transparencies and slides during a plenum lecture session. Such teaching material is often produced using presentation programs, such as Powerpoint. Most presentation programs were invented before the advent of the World Wide Web and the Internet. These programs can produce online documents, presentable from a browser, either via common documented formats (such as postscript of pdf), via vendor supplied 'browser plug ins', or as bitmapped graphics. However, none of these secondary formats provides for a smooth integration with the rest of the resources on the Internet (for instance the course plan pages discussed above) nor full utilization of the power of hypertext.

We have made an alternative to these presentation programs, which produces slides in HTML as the primary format. The system, called LENO, processes a textual input file in a particular format, and produces a set of HTML pages. The practical processing procedure is similar to old fashioned text formatting, using LaTeX, for instance. The input format, which is called LAML (Lisp Abstracted Markup Language [2]) is similar to XML [5], although different from XML when it comes to the details. From a technical perspective, the LENO input is a program written in the functional programming language Scheme [6] using a particular library of Scheme functions. As a consequence of this, we can provide programmatic solutions to many routine tasks, because a full-fledged programming language is available anywhere in a document, and anytime during the authoring process. For authors with a computer science background, this programmatic approach turns out to an interesting alternative to more conventional approaches, where abstraction and automation facilities are rather limited.

We will here enumerate the most important virtues of LENO compared with more traditional presentation programs:

There are also a number of negative aspects inherent in our approach:

Based on our own experience with LENO, we find that the virtues from above outweigh the deficiencies. Figure 2 shows a snapshot of an annotated slide from LENO. (For better readability in this verion of the paper, the example is also awailable via an URL .)

Figure 2.   A snapshot of an annotated slide generated by LENO. This particular slide includes three program fragments, which are colorized in order to emphasize particular aspects of the code.

4.   Synchronous Exercise Management
Following each lecture, the students carry out some concrete and practical exercises. During the exercises the students get help and advice from the teacher of the course and a number of teaching assistants. Due to the problem-oriented and project-organized teaching model at Aalborg University [7], the students are located in many small group rooms (with 6-7 students in each room). In this particular course, there were 25 groups, three teaching assistants, and the typical exercises involved practical programming in Java.

It is a major challenge to manage an exercises session which follows the setup described above. Concretely, we see the following problems:

In order to deal with these problems we have created a WWW-based interactive exercise manager. The manager presents itself as a small frame, which sticks to the window in which the exercise formulation is shown. Figure 3 shows an example. LENO (as described in section 3 ) be set up to generate the underlying frame set. The exercise manager tool allows the student to send brief, one-line messages of particular types, to the teacher via the exercise manager server.

Figure 3.   A snapshot of the exercise manager, as attached to a LENO generated WWW page which shows an exercise formulation.

From a student perspective, the exercise manager is used in the following way:

  1. The students send an exercise start message when they start working on a particular exercise.
  2. The students send en exercise question message if a problem occurs which requires assistance from a teacher. As a variant, a 'total frustration' message can be sent. The students briefly explain the nature of the problem in the message field.
  3. When a group of students get help, they send a message of the type 'got help'. This makes the previous question or frustration messages pertaining to a particular exercises disappear from the overviews, which are regularly consulated by the teachers.
  4. An exercise finish question is sent when the students are done with the exercise. As a variant, the students can send a 'gave up' message. The students are encouraged to explain the outcome of the exercise in the message field.

We encourage the students to use the exercise manager via the following incentives:

From a teacher perspective, the exercise manager helps out in the following ways:

The successful use of the exercise manager requires discipline from both the students and teachers. One should also be aware that there may be elements of 'big brother watches you' using the system. However, the experiences until now is quite positive and encouraging. The students experience that they often get help a few minutes after a problem is reported. And as a teacher of the course, it is possible to get detailed knowledge about the success (or lack of success) of an exercises session. Using the messages submitted to the system, it is also possible to plan future modifications of the exercise programme, and to spot recurring problems that need to be addressed in a future plenum session on the course.

Until now, the messages from the exercise manager are one-way, from the students to the teacher. As an obvious generalization, one could imagine a two-way communication using the system. This would, however, require that one of the teachers operates the system rather than visiting the students face to face. We have not yet tried out such an alternative use of the teacher resources.

The exercise manager was designed to alleviate some concrete problems with exercises in many small rooms. We believe, however, that some of ideas of synchronous exercise support via the WWW can be used in other setting, for instance in more classical lab sessions in a distributed environment.

5.   Asynchronous Activity Management
The exercise manager, described in the previous section, is a synchronous tool designed to be used by on-campus students. We are getting more and more open university students who work off-campus, and who study at nights or in weekends. We have recently started to service these students with an asynchronous activity management tool, called IDAFUS. IDAFUS share properties with news-group systems and conference systems. In this section we will briefly outline the most interesting properties of this system.

The main concepts in IDAFUS are units, activities and contributions. Within a given unit (such as a course) it is possible to define a number of activities (such as exercises or discussion forums focussed on particular topics). An activity is described in terms of a formulation, a clarification (optional), a visibility of the contributions to the activity, and other properties. Contributions can be private (between a student and the teacher), visible to a group or class of students, or public. The contributions from the students or teachers are organized in a tree, rooted in an activity, and hereby allowing that a contribution can follow up on another contribution. Each contribution has a type.

Contributions in IDAFUS are presented together with a photo of the contributing student or teacher. This has turned out to be very important in relation to seminars or lectures. Students, who have been using the system a lot, are easily recognized during subsequent classes or seminars.

IDAFUS provides various customizable overview pages, such that users of the system only needs to check a single page in order to find out whether there are new contributions of interest.

It is important for off-campus student to get feedback on exercises. IDAFUS allows 'just in time' solutions, in terms of an automatically released contribution from the teacher when the student submits his or her solution. The teacher's solution stems from the activity clarification, mentioned above. The automatic relase of the solution also makes life easier for the teacher. However, it is still important for the teacher to follow up - on an individual basis - on relevant contributions from the students.

IDAFUS supports serial activities, in the terms of released continuation activities. In the current system the serial activities are linear, but on could also imagine some kind of branching structure. Serial activities mixed with released solution allows us keep the student 'on track'. In addition, it creates a feeling of 'dynamics', which may cause curiosity and extra student attention.

Besides the WWW interface to the student, IDAFUS also provides the teacher with a friendly WWW interface for activity definition and management. From an administrative point of view, we support a basic WWW-based user registration subsystem for IDAFUS.

6.   Integration Issues
The integration of course plan pages (including calendar pages), course material pages, and dialogue pages soon becomes a major concern, and a source of complexity. We support the following kinds of integration:

Currently we use very simple means to achieve the necessary integration. In a future version one could imagine a more sophisticated integration approach involving a central integrator component, which embodies common knowledge of the entire system.

7.   Conclusions
We have presented a suite of tools for management of the WWW support of a university course in computer science. Taken as a whole, the tools make it possible to produce and maintain a large body of material, which it would be almost impossible to manage without tool support. Our material for the object-oriented programming course (using Java) consists of approximately 2000 HTML pages, each with a number of internal links, and a considerable amount of links to external targets. The programmatic authoring approach relies on abstractions in order not to deal with unwanted details, and automation of routine tasks. The automation has, for instance, been used to check the validity of the link targets at generation time. In addition, we have been able to make and maintain several editions of the entire lecture note material (including a WWW server edition, a labtop teacher edition, and a CD edition distributed among the students) for which systematic redirection of many external links turned out to be necessary. 



1. Kurt NÝrmark, Programming World Wide Web Pages in Scheme, 1999. Submitted to ACM Sigplan Notices
2. Kurt NÝrmark, Using Lisp as a markup language - the LAML approach, Presented at the European Lisp User Group Meeting, Amsterdam, 1999
3. Kurt NÝrmark, The LAML Homepage , http://www.cs.auc.dk/~normark/laml/
4. The World Wide Web Consortium, HTML 4.0 Specification, April 1998
5. The World Wide Web Consortium, Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0, February 1998
6. The Internet Scheme Repository, http://www.cs.indiana.edu/scheme-repository/home.html
7. Finn Kjersdam and Stig Enemark , The Aalborg Experiment -- Project Innovation in University Education, The Faculty of Technology and Science and Aalborg University Press, Aalborg University Press, Niels Jernesvej, DK-9220 Aalborg, Denmark, 1994


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